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Using Graphs and Visual Data in Science

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Charts and Graphs

Preview Your Review. Thank you. Most of the recently introduced statistical packages and graphics software have the three-dimensional 3D effect feature.

Charts Are Like Pasta - Data Visualization Part 1: Crash Course Statistics #5

The 3D effects can add depth and perspective to a graph. However, since they may make reading and interpreting data more difficult, they must only be used after careful consideration. The application of 3D effects on a pie chart makes distinguishing the size of each slice difficult. Even if slices are of similar sizes, slices farther from the front of the pie chart may appear smaller than the slices closer to the front Fig. Finally, we explain how to create a graph by using a line graph as an example Fig.

In Fig. In many graphs, the x- and y-axes meet at the zero point Fig. The data can be clearly exposed by separating the zero point Fig.

Separating the data sets and presenting standard deviations in a single direction prevents overlapping and, therefore, reduces the visual inconvenience. Doing so also reduces the excessive number of ticks on the y-axis, increasing the legibility of the graph Fig. In the last graph, different shapes were used for the lines connecting different time points to further allow the data to be distinguished, and the y-axis was shortened to get rid of the unnecessary empty space present in the previous graphs Fig. A graph can be made easier to interpret by assigning each group to a different color, changing the shape of a point, or including graphs of different formats [ 10 ].

The use of random settings for the scale in a graph may lead to inappropriate presentation or presentation of data that can deceive readers' eyes Fig. Owing to the lack of space, we could not discuss all types of graphs, but have focused on describing graphs that are frequently used in scholarly articles. We have summarized the commonly used types of graphs according to the method of data analysis in Table 3.

For general guidelines on graph designs, please refer to the journal submission requirements 2. Text, tables, and graphs are effective communication media that present and convey data and information. They aid readers in understanding the content of research, sustain their interest, and effectively present large quantities of complex information. As journal editors and reviewers will scan through these presentations before reading the entire text, their importance cannot be disregarded.

How to Tell a Story With Charts and Graphs

For this reason, authors must pay as close attention to selecting appropriate methods of data presentation as when they were collecting data of good quality and analyzing them. In addition, having a well-established understanding of different methods of data presentation and their appropriate use will enable one to develop the ability to recognize and interpret inappropriately presented data or data presented in such a way that it deceives readers' eyes [ 11 ]. Discovery and communication are the two objectives of data visualization.

In the discovery phase, various types of graphs must be tried to understand the rough and overall information the data are conveying.


The communication phase is focused on presenting the discovered information in a summarized form. During this phase, it is necessary to polish images including graphs, pictures, and videos, and consider the fact that the images may look different when printed than how appear on a computer screen. In this appendix, we discuss important concepts that one must be familiar with to print graphs appropriately. The KJA asks that pictures and images meet the following requirement before submission 3. Submit files of figures and photographs separately from the text of the paper.

Width of figure should be 84 mm one column. Contrast of photos or graphs should be at least dpi. Contrast of line drawings should be at least 1, dpi. The Powerpoint file ppt, pptx is also acceptable. Unfortunately, without sufficient knowledge of computer graphics, it is not easy to understand the submission requirement above.

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Therefore, it is necessary to develop an understanding of image resolution, image format bitmap and vector images , and the corresponding file specifications. The higher the resolution, the clearer and closer to reality the image is, while the opposite is true for low resolutions. The greater the number of dots, the higher the resolution.

The KJA submission requirements recommend dpi for images, and 1, dpi 4 for graphs. In other words, resolutions in which or 1, dots constitute one inch are required for submission. There are requirements for the horizontal length of an image in addition to the resolution requirements. While there are no requirements for the vertical length of an image, it must not exceed the vertical length of a page.

The width of a column on one side of a printed page is 84 mm, or 3. Therefore, a graph must have a resolution in which 1, dots constitute 1 inch, and have a width of 3. Methods of image construction are important. Bitmap images can be considered as images drawn on section paper. Enlarging the image will enlarge the picture along with the grid, resulting in a lower resolution; in other words, aliasing occurs.

On the other hand, reducing the size of the image will reduce the size of the picture, while increasing the resolution. In other words, resolution and the size of an image are inversely proportionate to one another in bitmap images, and it is a drawback of bitmap images that resolution must be considered when adjusting the size of an image. To enlarge an image while maintaining the same resolution, the size and resolution of the image must be determined before saving the image.

An image that has already been created cannot avoid changes to its resolution according to changes in size. Enlarging an image while maintaining the same resolution will increase the number of horizontal and vertical dots, ultimately increasing the number of pixels 5 of the image, and the file size. To avoid this complexity, the width of an image can be set to 4 inches and its resolution to dpi to satisfy the submission requirements of most journals [ 12 ]. Vector images overcome the shortcomings of bitmap images. Vector images are created based on mathematical operations of line segments and areas between different points, and are not affected by aliasing or pixelation.

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Furthermore, they result in a smaller file size that is not affected by the size of the image. They can also contain bitmap and vector images. This results in a resolution that is inappropriate for printing on a paper medium. It is derived by multiplying the number of vertical and horizontal dots regardless of image size. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity.

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The snippet could not be located in the article text. This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special characters or spans different sections of the article. Korean J Anesthesiol. Published online May PMID: Junyong In 1 and Sangseok Lee 2. Find articles by Junyong In.