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Therefore, I thank Dr John Gage, who accompanied my early academic steps in Cambridge, and Professor Jean Michel Massing, my supervisor at the University of Cambridge, for continued support and guidance.

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Jutta Held Karlsruhe , who accepted it for the series of the Guernica-Gesellschaft. I greatly appreciate especially the comments of Papenbrock and Held on the drafts of this book.

Finally, I owe to Markus, Cyril and Charlotte more than can be stated here. She added a chapter in which she discussed the works in exile of the two key artist members, Oskar Kokoschka and John Heartfield.

Four Freedoms

In this study, the valuable information provided by her has been widened not only in terms of considering and presenting new primary visual and written material, but also in terms of increasing the scope of the study by comparing the FGLC with the Austrian Centre, the Anglo-Sudeten Club and the Czech Institute. As such it follows in the footsteps of scholars in Exile Studies, such as John Czaplicka, who examines the identity of artists emigrating to the US.

Looking at the theoretical discourse on more recent immigration groups in Britain as particularly conducted by Homi K. Thus the present work seeks to provide to some extent new material with a new approach to Exile Studies. Historiographic Outline: From Betroffenen-Wissen- schaft to a Theoretical Discourse of Exile As with the beginnings of Exile Studies in general, which have been called Betroffenen- Wissenschaft, art in exile in Britain was first considered by those affected by exile, by artists and their families soon after the official end of it:5 Jack Bilbo published his autobiography in , John Heartfield wrote his Lebenslauf in Exhibitions of the works have also been held since the end of exile as outlined at the end of Chapter Two.

Exile Studies in Germany until reunification in were divided between East and West. What both utopias shared was that Exile Studies was understood more as a mission than the study of an historical situation. Exhibitions of the late s and beginning of the s stressed resistance such as Zwischen Widerstand und Anpassung and Widerstand statt Anpassung.

He chose, however, mainly artists who had been well known before their exile. The s are particularly important, since during these years art in British exile received much attention in Germany and Britain. Its accompanying catalogue is still one of the most important source books for this topic, since it provides short biographies of the exiled artists and articles on various subjects including the exhibition activities of exile artists, internment, graphic art in exile and German exile artists in British film production. While the English catalogue only covers refugee artists in the narrower sense, the German one, despite its biographical focus on fine arts and architecture, also includes essays on literature, film and art history.

Art in exile in Britain also benefited from the increased general interest of Austria in exile in the s following studies on politics and literature e. Research on art in exile in Britain was continued in Germany and Britain and also started to be of interest in the US. Keith Holz approached the subject from a geographic viewpoint, comparing modern German art and its public in London with those in Prague and Paris in his PhD thesis in Furthermore, making use of the recorded interviews of internees undertaken by the Imperial War Museum in London since the mids and following general studies on internment that had come out since the s,18 Klaus Hinrichsen, himself interned in Hutchinson Square on the Isle of Man, gave insights into the art production and exhibiting activities in the camps in Two years later, an exhibition about the internment on the Isle of Man, entitled Living with the Wire, brought to light further primary material.

Additionally, Jewish artists immigrating from Nazi Germany have received attention; among instances of this are catalogues of exhibitions held at the Belgrave Gallery , Ben Uri Gallery and The Jewish Museum and ,19 and books such as Second Chance , which also has a contribution on the fine arts in exile in Britain.

Both exhibitions provided a selection of works, mainly based on private collections of works by refugee artists from Nazi Germany.

German-speaking Exiles in Great Britain. Aber wo liegt es? Das Austrian Centre in London bis , the first comprehensive publication on the Austrian Centre. So far, the artists of the Austrian Centre have received consideration by Ursula Seeber-Weyrer and Ursula Prutsch, who focus on photographies published by the Austrian Centre,29 and Marian Malet, who has given papers on fine art since The sixth yearbook of the Centre for German and Austrian Exile Studies, edited by Shulamith Behr and Marian Malet, concentrates solely on art in Britain including also contributions which discuss Austrian artists.

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Here the approach to art is by comparison with literature, particularly by Sybil Milton, whose article is discussed below. Handzeichnung und Druckgraphik deutschsprachiger Emigran- ten ab While concentrating on media and putting geographical boundaries into the background, she approaches exile iconographically, examining metaphors of exile, particularly those that express the sorrows of exile.

Emigrants and Exiles held in Vienna and Chicago in concentrated on Austrian artists in America between and The mainly biographical approach interpreted the emigrants as a lost generation.

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It looked at those artists who worked in Germany and France before their emigration, concentrating on well- known modern artists. Apart from papers considering writers, those on artists included contributions on graphic art PD Dr. Rosamunde Neugebauer , painting Petra Weckel and internment myself. Surveys of the historical development of research on art and exile published by Sabine Eckmann in , Jutta Held in and and Martin Papenbrock in signal that the field of art and exile is beginning to be established.

Emigration from other countries has received little attention so far. Both play a role in studies of emigration from Czechoslovakia most of them published by Peter Heumos , but have not been dealt with separately.

As in her article on the Bohemian writers in the BBC , she focused on the contributions of the writers rather than on those of the artists. Moreover, the artist members are not well researched as individuals. Hence the present work provides new evidence regarding the artistic output of these two organisations. Except for the conference of the North American Society for Exile Studies and latest efforts in the discipline of History of Art, all the studies mentioned above do not refer to Postcolonialism, a field that is closely connected with Literature Studies particularly English Literature Studies , but has also been introduced into the History of Art, particularly by Olu Oguibe and Rasheed Araeen.

With a few exceptions, it seems as if both fields, Exile Studies and Postcolonialism exist alongside each other without recognising common interests and developed methodologies. Taking account of postcolonial theories opens new questions and themes for and in the field of exile from Nazi Germany. In the latter, Lutz Winkler states that the process of acculturation of the literary and artistic exile still remains rarely researched.

Paul G. Hoffman Papers | Harry S. Truman

Thus exile as an identification is neither assumed nor taken for granted, but understood as one model amongst many, from which the exiles could choose. Such an understanding of exile reacts to what Jutta Held proposed in her historiography on art and exile as a vision, namely the consideration of the chances of self-determination of the invidual.

This would not mean that the exile of the s loses its specific character. As such, it would also follow up those undertakings which already widen the exile not only historically e. Towards a Methodology As shown in detail above, this study draws on research undertaken in Postcolonialism, the History of Art and Exile Studies, the latter mainly led by German literature. The category of exile came to be discussed only in the s; with this change came a move towards Exile Studies, which by then were already firmly established.

Because the field of Exile Studies is already established, the study of art in exile can benefit methodologically from the debate on characteristics of exile literature. The underlying question of the debate is whether exile is not only a biographical notion, but can also be applied to the works written under these conditions. Positions vary from including all works written in exile Walter A. Berendsohn to developing a typology of exile Werner Vordertriebe.

Conditions differed in many temporary domiciles and the vagaries of individual experiences could not congeal into a common style or group experience [ The art of the exiles reflected the past rather than their lives in transit [ Thus, it can be stipulated in conclusion that although there were exile artists, there probably was no common art of exile. Following Milton, Martin Papenbrock recently asked the question again. Following those studies which apply the latest discourse, the present study makes explicit reference to Postcolonialism as already mentioned above. The motivation for considering it is not only because of the Postcolonial discussion on exile, but also because of the fact that it often deals with immigration to Britain, as does the present work.

Thus this study refers to Postcolonialism, particularly in Chapter Five where also the influence of Exile Studies on Postcolonial theories is outlined. Thus, other models of identification, for example, that with modern art, a nationality, a political or religious affiliation, amongst which exile is also considered, play a role in Chapters Three and Four.

As with all the other chapters, it makes use of documentary material and published and unpublished research carried out in the fields of interdisciplinary studies in Britain and of art- historical analysis of this and other exile countries. While Chapter Three is based more on written sources and includes a paragraph on British conceptions of the refugee artists, Chapter Four, based on the art works, recounts the visual narratives of the refugee artists. In more detail, Chapter Three, being loosely influenced by reception theory, demonstrates how the refugees were defined by the British art world and variously defined themselves.

Bhaba, who was among the first to raise the issues of narratives and counter-narratives, which have proved essential for the analysis of the construction of both identity and image. The results of Chapter Three triggered the outline of Chapter Four, which deals with the works produced by the exile artists.

Freedom of the press

With the help of two examples, it uncovers two opposing visual narratives of refugee art productions. As will be shown, concepts developed for other types of migration are useful in shedding new light on the emigration of the s and s. Moreover, by comparison, it also shows the limits of such an application and thus makes it possible to demonstrate the specific characteristics of artists emigrating from Nazi Germany to Britain from to Although anti- semitism in Germany had a long pre-Nazi history,3 it was legalised by the Third Reich.

Those who were affected either possessed a German passport or lived in Germany. In addition, Austrians and Czechs and those who resided in those countries had reason to fear the Nazis after the annexation of Austria in and the invasion of CSR in Hence most of the artists included here were of German, Czech or Austrian nationality, but some had been born in Israel, Brazil, Croatia, Romania or Russia, and were living in one of the countries occupied by the Nazis during the Third Reich.

Thirdly, some artists were persecuted solely for the style of their works. Jewish Persecution The vast majority emigrated because they, their spouses, or their parents were Jewish. This remained the only common background. Jews already had to tolerate verbal and physical violence before Hitler came to power, although it may not have been on a daily basis.

Jews began to be expelled from cultural activities, the press, and the arts.

II. Music Initiated by the Prisoners

This seems to have been the case with Ernst Blensdorf, who lectured at the Staatliche Kunstschule in Wuppertal between and and had produced preliminary studies for the Inter- national Nansen Memorial, a peace monument, planned with international support from the League of Nations, commissions and individual contributors from In addition to the changes in legislation, in the summer of , concentration camps were established.

As a result, some Jews moved to smaller towns, where anti-semitic feeling was less fierce. For instance, Jussuf Abbo advised his wife to go to Fischerhude near Bremen in August , while he stayed in Berlin preparing for their emigration. Approximately half of all the Jewish artists who ultimately emigrated to Britain from Germany, had already left by In contrast with the political persecution, the German government supported the emigration of Jews. It was only later that it planned their extermination, which it finally began to carry out in October Even after the pogrom in , , Jews remained in the Reich.

One reason for this is obviously the difficulty of starting again in a new country with a probable lack of the requisite qualifications and subsequent loss of status. However, more significantly, the reluctance to emigrate reflects the high level of assimilation: Jews felt part of the socio-political environment of the nation-states in which they lived.

I. Music on Command

Their nationality carried at least as much importance as their religion. Although the pressure was nation-wide, some Jews sought to escape the harassment by leaving the capital. In mid, Jewish salespersons, doctors, lawyers and agents lost their licences. On the night of 9 November synagogues were burnt, cemeteries desecrated, and Jewish buildings destroyed. About 30, Jewish men were taken into concentration camps in Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen and kept there for weeks or months in order to increase their desire to emigrate. The painter Erich Kahn, for example, was interned in a concentration camp in and emigrated to Britain a year later.